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Global interactions (Higher Level only)

Content Learning Outcomes Notes
1.     Measuring global interactions

4 hours

·        Global participation











·        Global core and periphery




Describe and evaluate one of the two globalisation indices:

–         The AT Kearney index   (or)

–         The KOF index

as a measure of global interaction. Describe how the globalisation index may be represented spatially.


Discuss the spatial pattern of global interactions through the mapping of core areas at the focus of interaction (network hubs/nodes), the peripheries and areas relatively unaffected by these interactions.

2.     Changing space – the shrinking world

12 hours

·        Time-space convergence and the reduction in the friction of distance










·        Extension and density of networks





Explain how the reduction in the friction of distance results in time-space convergence.


Examine the relative changes in the speed and capacity of two types of transport (air, ocean, road, rail, pipeline) responsible for the flow of goods, material and people.


Examine the changes in a transport, internet or telecommunications network in terms of the extension of links and nodes and the intensity of use at a national or global scale.


Describe the role of information and communication technology (ICT) in civil society and the transmission and flow of images, ideas, information and finance.


Examine the contrasting rates, levels and patterns of adoption of an element of ICT in two countries

3.     Economic interactions and flows

8 hours

·        Financial flows



















·        Labour flows





·        Information flows





Examine the importance of loans, debt repayment, development, aid, remittance, foreign direct investment and repatriation of profits in the transfer of capital between the developed core areas and the peripheries.


Examine the influences of governments, world trading organisations and financial institutions (WTO, IMF & WB) in the transfer of capital.


Explain the causes and effects of one major flow of labour between two countries.


Explain the role of ICT in the growth of international outsourcing.

4.     Environmental change

8 hours

·        Degradation through raw material production
















·        The effects of transnational manufacturing and services







·        Transboundary pollution



















·        Homogenisation of landscapes




Identify the effect of agro-industrialisation and changes in international production and consumption on the physical environment.


Discuss the environmental consequences of increasing international demand for one raw material. Examine the concept of food miles and the environmental consequences of increasing volumes of air freight.


Discuss the reasons for and consequences of polluting industries (such as TNCs) and waste disposal (such as ICT, chemical and nuclear) to countries with weaker environmental controls and safety regulations.


Describe one major pollution event affecting more than one country and examine the consequences of and responses to this event.


Examine the growth of environmental awareness as a consequence of these global interactions.


Examine the role of one international civil society organisation in fostering improved environmental management.


Explain the evolution of uniform urban landscapes; the effects of common commercial activity, structures, styles of construction and infrastructure.

5.     Sociocultural exchanges

8 hours

·        Cultural diffusion: the process











·        Consumerism and culture










·        Sociocultural integration




Describe the cultural traits in terms of language, customs, beliefs, dress, images, music, food and technology. Examine the diffusion of cultural traits resulting from the international movement of workers, tourists and commodities.


Describe the role of TNCs and the media in spreading consumer culture. Select two different branded commodities and examine the spatial and temporal pattern of adoption on a global scale.


Examine the role of diasporas in preserving culture in one country and the adoption of minority traits by host societies.


Examine the impact of cultural diffusion on one indigenous and remote society through the influence of international interactions.


Examine the ways in which international interactions may result in the homogenisation and dilution of culture. Define and exemplify the concept of cultural imperialism.

6.     Political outcomes

10 hours

·        Loss of sovereignty

























·        Responses



Discuss the links between the diminishing effectiveness of political borders and the flow of goods, capital, labour and ideas, and the role of one multi-governmental organisation such as the European Union, the Association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and MERCOSUR (the common market of South America). Discuss the shift of power from nation state to TNCs as a result of their economic size and dominance. Compare the wealth of TNCs with that of nation states.


Examine the resurgence of nationalism in one country as it attempts to retain control of its resources and culture.


Discuss anti-globalisation movements.


Discuss the attempts to control migration into one country.

7.     Global interactions at the local level

10 hours

·        Defining globalisation



·        Adoption of globalisation








·        Local responses to globalisation


















·        Alternatives




Distinguish between the terms globalisation and glocalisation.


Examine the extent to which commercial activities at a local scale have become globalised. Examine the reasons why the level and rate of adoption varies from place to place.


Discuss civil society responses to globalisation; the adoption, adaptation (glocalisation) or rejection of globalised goods, services and cultural traits.


Evaluate the relative costs and benefits of local commercial production to the producer, the consumer and the local economy, compare with the costs and benefits of globalised production.


Describe the role of civil societies in raising awareness of local and global environmental, social and cultural issues. Examine the role of civil societies in supporting local economic activity and strengthening local cultural values. Discuss the position held by anti-globalisation groups.


Evaluate the quality of life of a contemporary non-globalised society.

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