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Globalisation, culture and tourism

Globalisation, culture and tourism


Globalisation – This is when human activities take place on a worldwide scale, meaning we increasingly live in a ‘global village’ or a ‘shrinking world’.

Globalisation has resulted due to a number of factors, they are:

Improvements in technology and telecommunications – computers, internet access, email, mobile phones and video conferencing.

Improvements in transport – people now holiday all over the world and businesses ship products and raw materials globally.
The growth of transnational/multinational companies (TNC’s/MNC’s), such as HSBC, Nike and Nestle. These companies are the driving force of globalisation.
Greater political cooperation e.g. the World Trade Organisation (WTO), an intergovernmental organisation that promotes free trade.
The development of trading blocs.
The world becoming more interconnected.


The process by which people, their cultures, money, goods and information can be transferred between countries with few or no barriers.

Aspects of globalisation


The world is effectively shrinking

Information, goods and services can be transferred much more quickly than before.

The cost of communication has also fallen.


We now communicate and share each other’s cultures through travel and trade, transporting products around the world in hours or days. We are in a huge global economy where something that happens in one area can have knock on effects worldwide.

Benefits of globalisation:
Investment of TNC’s provides new jobs and skills for local people.
TNC’s bring in foreign currency to local economies when they buy local resources, products and services. This is known as a multiplier effect.
The mixing of people and cultures – people can experience foods and products not previously available in the country.
Migration of people can fill labour and skill shortages.
Globalisation can make people aware of distant parts of the world – e.g. people of the UK were quickly alerted to the impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake.
It may help people be more aware of global issues like deforestation and global warming and alert them to the need for sustainable development.

Essay question


Describe how the A380 is both the product of and a contributor to globalisation?

A380 1.png

A380 2

Hints and Tips

Could the essay title be split into sub questions to help it be answered?

Yes … two

Describe how the A380 is a product of globalisation (so think about how processes of globalisations help to make the A380) and

Describe how the A380 is a contributor to globalisation (so the A380 helps globalisation to happen).

What about the structure of the essay?

For such an essay title you should be thinking about producing a four paragraph answer.

What should be in the introduction?

The first paragraph should be an introduction

– Break down the main essay title into the two sub questions you are going to use to help you answer the main question.

What is the A380? and what is Airbus? This should be a brief summary so that the person who marks the essay knows you understand what an A380 is!

What should be in the second paragraph?

The second paragraph should answer the first sub question: Describe how the A380 is a product of globalisation.

– Consider where the A380 is made and assembled.

– Consider where the raw materials come from, especially the aluminium used to make the wings.

-What about the buyers of the finished product?

What should be in the third paragraph?

The third paragraph should answer the second sub question: Describe how the A380 is a contributor to globalisation.

– Consider the role of the A380 in global transport.

– Consider what is special about the A380 in terms of size etc.

– Consider how tourism is a part of ‘globalisation’ and ‘the shrinking world’.

-Consider the routes that the A380 will be flying and the ‘hub’ airports that it will be using?

What should be in the conclusion?

The conclusion should bring the two sub questions together so that you can make a statement about the essay title. Does the A380 have a minor or major role in the processes of globalisation? You should also try and give a personal opinion in this section of the essay.

Can I use images in my essay?

You can use images in your essay whether they are photos, diagrams or maps.

Each image should have it’s own title and the location of where you found the image – that could be the name of the book you took it from or the URL of the webpage.

Problems associated with globalisation:

Globalisation operates largely in the interests of the richest countries.
The role of the developing countries is often to provide the richer countries with cheap labour and raw materials.
Profits are often sent back to to the HICs where most TNC’s are based.
TNC’s, with their large scale economies, may drive local companies out of business.
TNC’s might close down local factories and make people redundant.
TNC’s may operate in a way that would not be allowed in HICs – e.g. polluting the environment, taking risks with safety or paying low wages to local workers.
Globalisation is a threat to the world’s cultural diversity and drowns local traditions and languages.


Culture – Personal geography

Who am I?


Understanding identity is not just a case of knowing where we come from, it‟s a combination of a huge range of factors that come together to make an individual. Asking the question “Who am I?” will, on a basic level, produce relatively simple answers connected to, for example, gender, race and religion. However, by digging deeper, people start to think about their identity as being far more multifaceted and complex, with connections to where they were born, their ancestry, education, wealth, health, income, and the place where they live – “being able to ask questions about who we are and where we fit into the modern world is an important part of developing our identity.”
Therefore, it is important to ask the questions “Who am I?” and “Who do we think we are?” in relation to their world around us.

Landscape and identity

The association between people and landscapes, considering how people value landscapes and give them meaning. Identification with particular landscapes indicates a connection with the world around us. Landscapes make up part of our personal geography and, it can be argued, help us to understand our identity.


“Place is intimately entwined with identity…” and that the value we attribute to landscapes results from the connection and meaning they have for an individual. It has become recognised that “certain landscapes are associated with certain groups of people” and that “this contributes to national identity” (RGS Exploring the Archives learning resource), further reinforcing the argument that landscapes have meaning.


The attachment to landscape is part of the identity of every individual and every culture. The familiar streets, squares, parks, canals, fields and hills of childhood are an integral part of people’s psychological make-up and sense of rootedness in the world. When these things are lost – whether through exile, development or wilful destruction – their character often becomes even more important to people’s inner life. Think, for example, about how so much wonderful music and literature has been written in exile, in the form of home thoughts from abroad.
In a similar fashion, most cultures and nation states evoke loyalty and membership through the evocation of the national landscape: chalk cliffs, rolling downland, heather-strewn moors, song-filled valleys, roaring cataracts, proud mountains, silver lakes and scented forests. Whatever you have, it is always worth fighting for and is a good subject for epic ballads and childhood memoirs.


Loyalty to place has often given rise to powerful feelings about the relationship of landscape to culture. The following quote from Ken Taylor describes landscape:


What is Britishness?


“Britishness” has emerged as a hot topic over the last couple of years, with questions such as “What is Britishness?” and “What does it mean to be British?” frequently debated in the media. Although defined on Wikipedia as “a term referring to a sense of national identity of the British people and common culture of the United Kingdom” there is no single definition, and it is often a question which raises a plethora of responses from a variety of different people. Even politicians cannot agree on what Britishness.


However, Britishness for us is everywhere. Our identity is in tonight’s fish supper and this morning’s newspaper just as it is in the chimes of Big Ben. Britishness cannot be nailed down because, like all identities, it is evolving and re-forming with every moment. Trying to define it is like trying to paint the wind.

Am I a global citizen? – local to global


Being a global citizen is essential to life in the 21st century. Oxfam states that “today, more than ever before, the global is part of our everyday local lives”.

In addition, the fact that we now live in what is termed a Global Village means that we are not only aware of global events but that we are also aware that what happens across the globe affects us too. Oxfam argues that “Global Citizenship gives us (students) the knowledge, understanding, skills and values that they need if they are to participate fully in ensuring their own and others‟, well-being and to make a positive contribution, both the local and global.

A global citizen is someone who:


is aware of the wider world and has a sense of their own role as a world citizen respects and values diversity
has an understanding of how the world works economically, politically, socially, culturally, technologically and environmentally is outraged by social injustice participates in and contributes to the community at a range of levels from local to global is willing to act to make the world a more sustainable place takes responsibility for their actions.


Your role in the world

Awareness of our place in the world helps us to establish a clear identity for ourselves and an appreciation of who we are. Equally importantly, it encourages us to be curious, and subsequently develop an understanding and tolerance of people from diverse ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds – including identifying ways that they are both similar to and different from us. Our worlds expand in scale from the personal and local to the international and global. Each one of us sees importance in different people, places and connections between and within these scales, and we put value and meaning into our personal geographies.




Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and has far-reaching economic and environmental impact across the world.

Tourism is a tertiary activity because the services provided is helping people go on holiday.

Today there are over 900 million international tourist each year. Therefore, tourism is one of the world’s fastest-growing industries. In 2010, the Middle East and Asia had the greatest growth of tourists. Europe still has the greatest number of tourists – nearly 500 million in 2010.


Reasons behind the trend in tourism

• More affluence – There is more disposable income. People also now have paid time off work for holidays.
• Greater awareness – through advertising or television programmes people are more aware of how and where they can spend their free time.
• More car ownership – This gives greater freedom
• Improvements in technology – travelling today is much quicker.
• More leisure time – people have paid holidays from work There is also a trend to take more than one holiday in a year.
More choice – in the past seaside holidays and package holidays were the most popular. The industry is seeing more people look at ecotourism and more unusual holiday destinations.

The tourism industry therefore is very important to economic growth as well as the environment. Tourism can help a country’s economy and infrastructure. For example it provides jobs. It is an important contributor to many countries’ economies but it can have negative impacts unless it is properly managed.


Attractions for tourists

Man-made tourist attractions
• art
• architecture
• cultural monuments
• museums
• local traditions
• food and drink
• music and drama
• important historical or political sites


Physical resources
• the physical landscape – such as beaches, mountains, rivers, lakes and glaciers
• ecosystems – such as rainforest or tropical grasslands
weather and climate – most tourists seem to like it warm and dry.


National Parks

What is a National Park?

national park 6

…an area of countryside for public use designated by a national government as being of notable scenic, environmental, or historical importance.

There are currently 15 National Parks in the UK, 10 of which are in England. They are all managed by the National Park Authority.

Aims of a National Park are:

  • Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural heritage.
  • Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the public.
  • Enhance the economic and social well-being of the local community.

Can you see any issues that might arise from these aims?

Click on the link below and watch the YouTube clip

Using the map (below), describe the distribution of the National Parks in England.

Consider their position in relation to human and natural features such as motorways, settlements and highland areas.

National Parks 2

National Parks

National Parks within the UK

National parks 4

1.Cairngorms  2.Loch Lomond and the Trossachs  3.Northumberland  4.Lake District 5.Yorkshire Dales  6.North York Moors  7.Peak District  8.Norfolk Broads 9.Snowdonia  10.Pembrokeshire Coast  11.Brecon Beacons  12.Exmoor  13.Dartmoor 14.New Forest  15.South Downs

Challenge your BRAIN

1.Which National Park do you think gets the most day trip visits?

2.Which National Park in England is furthest from major centres of population?

3.Which National Park is the lowest and closest to sea level?

4.Name 5 parks which are mostly uplands.


Study the map (above – National Parks in the UK).

One of the aims of National Parks is to provide access to open air recreation in ‘natural’ surroundings.

a) Describe the location of the National Parks in relation to the major urban areas. Are the national parks well located in relation where most people live? (make sure you name Parks and cities in your answer)

b) Which of the National Parks are most accessible by motorway?

c) Which of the parks are remote and hard to get to?

Study the photo below

What types of activities might people undertake in this landscape?

National parks 5

Where is this?

Quiz Question – what National Park is the image taken from?

Who uses the national parks??

national park 7

Tourists    Local people    Farmers    Walkers    Researchers

Why might there be conflicts between the groups?


  • National Park: A legally designated area of valuable landscape worth preserving. Planning and development are controlled. E.g. The Lake District
  • Honeypot Site: A specific location attracting a very large number of people that causes pressure on the environment. e.g. Beatrix Potters House

national parks 6

Using the photograph above explain why there might be conflict in this area? (Who uses the area? Who lives in the area? Who works the land?)

national parks 7

Each of the numbers on the diagram above highlights a problem that tourists might cause in the National Parks.

Impacts tourist have on a National Park

Positive:                                                        Negative:

  • Jobs Damage
  • Income Traffic and congestion
  • Demands for local food and crafts Shops mainly supply tourist items
  • People mainly come to see scenery Holiday homes

national parks 8


Developing Wasdale for tourism

Click on the link below the photograph which is a decision making exercise concerning development (tourism) within the Lake District.

The key question is:

How can rural environments under pressure from visitors be managed to ensure a sustainable environmental and social future?

lake Picture1

PowerPoint – Wast Water DME3 


Effects of tourism on LICs



Butler’s model – stages of tourism

The seven stages of tourist development


1. Exploration – a small number of tourists visit the area. The area is unspoilt and few tourist facilities exist.
2. Involvement – local people start to provide some facilities for tourists. There starts to become a recognised tourist season.
3. Development – the host country starts to develop and advertise the area. The area becomes recognised as a tourist destination.
4. Consolidation – the area continues to attract tourists. The growth in tourist numbers may not be a fast as before. Some tensions develop between the host and the tourists.
5. Stagnation – the facilities for the tourists may decline as they become old and run down. The numbers of tourists may decline too.
6. Rejuvenation – investment and modernisation may occur which leads to improvements and visitor numbers may increase again.
7. Decline – if the resort is not rejuvenated (stage 6) then it will go into decline. People lose their jobs related to tourism. The image of the area suffers.

Tourism in a LIC – Kenya – Game Parks


In many developing countries tourism is seen to be the answer to their economic problems. The development of air travel has meant that many more people now have the opportunity to go to places such as Kenya and Tanzania. They have encouraged tourists to see their beautiful natural areas, in particular the big game parks.
However, as increasing numbers of people flood into places like Kenya, they are finding that tourism brings with it a range of environmental, cultural and social problems.
Kenya is attractive to foreign travellers as it provides them with an opportunity to experience different cultures and natural surroundings. Many people have grown tired of the overcrowded Mediterranean resorts, instead favouring a more exotic holiday that, until a few years ago, would have been out of most peoples budgets.


The attractions that Kenya offers include:
• The safari parks, with the chance to see animals such as lion, leopard and elephant.
• The chance to experience the culture of the tribes of Kenya, such as the Masai.
• The Indian Ocean coast offers fabulous beaches, a tropical climate, and some of the best scuba diving in the world.
• A relatively safe place for tourists to travel.


The increase in tourism has led to economic growth and the creation of many jobs for local people. The influx of foreign money has helped to pay for much-needed developments throughout the country (although primarily in the main tourist areas). These have included improving roads, the airports and the water supply.
As most people travelling to Kenya go there to look at the animals on safari, the Government were forced to protect the natural environment by designating many areas as National Parks. Despite this there are still many problems caused by the massive numbers of tourists:
• The huge numbers of visitors is damaging the coral reefs and safari parks. Vehicles in the parks are causing soil erosion, whilst boats and divers themselves can damage the fragile coral very easily.
• The wildlife of the National Parks is constantly being disturbed by the throngs of tourists descending upon them to take their photos before heading off again.
• The Masai and other farmers have found that their land is now part of a National Park and therefore cannot be farmed. This has caused them great problems, and pushed them into joining the tourist industry. Many people feel that by putting on “cultural shows” for the tourists they are actually destroying their own culture, as the visitors look upon it as some kind of freak show.
• The massive tourist developments on the Indian Ocean coastline have caused an increase in house prices in the area, meaning that the locals are priced out of the market.
• Much of the new infrastructure developments have been completed primarily for the tourists, and do not really benefit the local community as much as some other projects might have done.
• A large percentage of the money earned by tourism in the country goes back to the tour operators and large hotel chains, which are based in countries like the United States and Great Britain.


Managing tourism – sustainable approaches to tourism – ecotourism

Ecotourism – Belize


Ecotourism or Green Tourism is aimed at allowing people to visit naturally beautiful environments whilst protecting them for the future at the same time. Many developing world governments have realised that unless they protect their fragile environments they are not going to have anything left for the tourists to come and see.

Ecotourism also aims to benefit the local people directly. One country to try this new form of tourism is Belize, on the Caribbean coast of Central America.
Belize is a very good example of where ecotourism is being tried.

The main aim is to achieve sustainability, which means that the environment is not in any way damaged by the tourists. Belize has an abundance of natural and cultural phenomena that attract tourists, including forests, wetlands, coral reefs, savannahs and ancient Mayan ruins.

An increasing number of tourists are coming to the country as they learn about all the things to see, and as the government realise the financial benefits of tourism.
However the government has also realised the importance of protecting the environments and has tried a number of initiatives. They created many National Parks and reserves, banning farming in many of them. In 1993 the Belize Ecotourism Association was established, it is concerned with protecting the natural environment and works closely with the Ministry of Tourism and the Environment.

Four main factors aim to ensure the sustainability of tourism in Belize:
• There is strict planning and control of tourist developments, including where they will be located, what they will look like, what transport routes are needed and any other regional planning that might be required.
• There is an increasing involvement in all stages of the tourism development by the local people. The aim is that they will assume almost complete control of the developments.
• The tourism that is introduced is aimed at being appropriate and not exploitative. In other words it is something that suits the local area and helps to enhance that area.
• The government aims to strike a balance between development and tourism that would be mutually beneficial to all involved, and the environment.
People are generally attracted to ecotourism by its remoteness, the small numbers of people and less sophisticated facilities. If these features disappear then the appeal of ecotourism is lost to many people, as the area just becomes another mass resort. If this happens then the fundamental objectives behind ecotourism also will have been forgotten.
All that is being attempted in Belize is building towards the goal of continuing to benefit from tourism, whilst protecting and nurturing the natural environment.


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