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Globalisation and migration

Globalisation and migration

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What you need to know:

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Globalisation – Videos BBC (click on the image below)

 

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We now communicate and share each other’s cultures through travel and trade, transporting products around the world in hours or days. We are in a huge global economy where something that happens in one area can have knock on effects worldwide. This process is called globalisation.

Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange. Globalisation has increased the production of goods and services. The biggest companies are no longer national firms but multinational corporations with subsidiaries in many countries.

Globalisation has been taking place for hundreds of years, but has speeded up enormously over the last half-century. Globalisation has resulted in:
increased international trade
a company operating in more than one country
greater dependence on the global economy
freer movement of capital, goods, and services
recognition of companies such as McDonalds and Starbucks in LEDCs
Although globalisation is probably helping to create more wealth in developing countries – it is not helping to close the gap between the world’s poorest countries and the world’s richest.

The growth of the global economy has been brought on by a number of factors, namely,
Trade
Foreign investment
Development aid
Labour

Four significant developments have helped the whole process scale up:

Transnational corporations: transnational corporations are companies that operate in more than one country.
Trading blocs: A set of countries which engage in international trade together, and are usually related through a free trade agreement or other association.
Information technology: this has allowed data and important information to be instantaneously spread around the globe.

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Modern transport networks: air, land and sea developments have meant now people and commodities can be quickly and relatively cheaply moved around.

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The outcome of these developments is today’s global economy. The workings of this involve five different forms of flows:
Trade: through exports and imports
Aid: much aid is in the economic form (donor or receiver)
Foreign investment: through investment TNCs are able to exploit economic opportunities
Labour: economic migration is commonplace with people on the move for a better way of life
Information: instantaneous movement of knowledge, data and decisions is crucial for the workings of the global economy.

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Through this global Economy we are becoming a global village : the whole world considered as being closely connected by modern telecommunications and as being interdependent economically, socially, and politically.

The global shift in manufacture

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The established branches of manufacture are shifting (moving) tier locations from HICs to MICs and LICs. The greatest influence on this movement is the TNCs which have changed location due to the fact that they are looking for the cheapest locations in which to make their products therefore factories have been closed down in HICs. This global shift is the product of deindustrialisation in the developed world and industrialisation in the developing world.

1. The global shift: Why manufacturing has moved to MICs and LICs

Manufacturing has moved to MICs and LICs from HICs for many reasons. TNCs have played a key role in the process of globalisation; they have been the main drivers of global shift. This has been done to cut costs so they go to areas with a comparative advantage over more expensive locations. These comparative advantages can be a variety of things. These can include: nearness to raw materials; cheap labour or cheap land; Unregulated labour; absence of anti pollution regulations. In the last 50 years a new international division of labour (NIDL) has emerged. The lowering of trade barriers and the growth of trading blocs such as the EU and NAFTA. There is more global trade. The development of modern transport networks capable of moving people and commodities quickly and efficiently. We live in a shrinking world. Advances in IT and communication mean the important data and decisions can be transported in seconds, decisions can be quickly transmitted.

2. Why the global shift is good news for LICs and MICs

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Foreign direct investment by TNCs can bring a number of advantages to the countries in which they operate. Most countries encourage TNC investment. New TNC factories can create a large number of jobs, and these jobs generally have higher wages than local companies. The local population will develop a much wider range of skills and set of the multiplier effect. Most of the TNC produce will be exported which would benefit the host country’s trading position.

3. Why the global shift is bad news for LICs and MICs (e.g. China)

One concern that LICs and MICs have is the speed at which TNCs can close factories in one country and open in another. Such factories may employ thousands of people so closure can have a huge negative impact on the local economy. There is also a danger that countries can become too dependent on TNCs. TNCs can also become so powerful that they can influence government decisions. When TNCs come into a poorer country they bring aspects of “Western” culture, Islamic countries in particular seem concerned about this.

Transnational organisations

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Globalisation has resulted in many businesses setting up or buying operations in other countries. When a foreign company invests in a country, perhaps by building a factory or a shop, this is called inward investment. Companies that operate in several countries are called multinational corporations (MNCs) or transnational corporations (TNCs). The US fast-food chain McDonald’s is a large MNC – it has nearly 30,000 restaurants in 119 countries.

The majority of TNCs come from HICs such as the US and UK. Many multinational corporations invest in other HICs. The US car company Ford, for example, makes large numbers of cars in the UK. However, TNCs also invest in LICs – for example, the British DIY store B&Q now has stores in China.

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Factors attracting TNCs to a country may include:
cheap raw materials
cheap labour supply
good transport
access to markets where the goods are sold
friendly government policies

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TNCs: Transnational corporations are companies that operate in more than one country. TNCs will normally locate their headquarters in their home country, for example Toyota has its headquarters in Japan. Headquarters are normally located in the TNCs country of origin because this is where the company was first established, where most of the profits will return to and where most of top management team is from. Most TNCs will also have R&D (see definition below) facilities which they will locate in developed country where there is a skilled workforce and a high level technology. However, TNCs will often chose to offshore there manufacturing plants to LICs where productions costs are lower (cheaper labour, cheaper land, etc.)

Research and Development (R&D): Scientific facilities that investigate, design and produce new or updated products. For example Google and Microsoft are constantly researching and developing new pieces of software. TNCs are constantly carrying out R&D because they want to make their products better and attract new customers.

FDI: Foreign direct investment is money spent by a foreign company in a country. FDI might be the building of a new factory, new road or educating a workforce.

Offshoring: When TNCs move sections of their business overseas. Call centres and manufacturing plants are often moved overseas because labour and production costs are cheaper.

Outsourcing: When certain parts of a companies operation are given to another company to provide. For example most companies outsource catering and cleaning, maintenance and IT support are also often outsourced. Companies outsourcing in the hope the services are provided more cheaply and the company is exposed to less risk. Outsourcing can be cheap because the company they have outsourced specialises in one business e.g. IT support and therefore can do it on a bigger scale and have cheaper average costs.

Case Study of a TNC: Coca Cola

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About
Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in the stores, restaurants, and vending machines of more than 200 countries. It is the number one manufacturer of soft drinks in the world.
Their headquarters is situated in Atlanta Georgia, USA. It is probably the best known brand symbol in the world. They sell nearly 400 different products. 70% of its sales are generated outside of North America.
Until 1905, the soft drink, marketed as a tonic, contained extracts of cocaine as well as the caffeine-rich kola nut.

Growth
The Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton’s French Wine Coca.
In 1886, when the county passed legislation which prohibited the alcoholic version, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, a non-alcoholic version.
The soft drink was first sold to the public in Jacob’s Pharmacy in Atlanta on May 8, 1886.
It proved popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence.
After disputes over ownership, with many people creating the recipe, Asa Griggs Candler The Coca-Cola Company in 1892.
Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894.
Cans of Coke first appeared in 1955
The first bottling of Coca-Cola occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1891
By 1895, Candler had built syrup plants in Chicago, Dallas and Los Angeles.
Advertising focused on the authenticity of Coca-Cola, urging consumers to “Demand the genuine” and “Accept no substitute.” As copycats sprang up.
As the country roared into the new century, The Coca-Cola Company grew rapidly, moving into Canada, Panama, Cuba, Puerto Rico, France, and other countries and U.S. territories. In 1900, there were two bottlers of Coca-Cola; by 1920, there would be about 1,000.
The expansion of Coca-Cola overseas took place in 1923 and in 1928 Coca-Cola was introduction to the Olympic Games for the first time when Coca-Cola traveled with the U.S. team to the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics
To support troops in the Second World War (but also to keep their business steady as far as business is concerned) they offered coca cola to any troops for 5 cents.
During the war, many people enjoyed their first taste of the beverage, and when peace finally came, the foundations were laid for Coca-Cola to do business overseas. From the mid-1940s until 1960, the number of countries with bottling operations nearly doubled.
After 70 years of success with one brand, Coca-Cola, the Company decided to expand with new flavours: Fanta was originally developed in the 1940s and introduced in the 1950s; Sprite followed in 1961. In 1960, The Coca-Cola Company acquired The Minute Maid Company, adding the line of juices to the Company.
The Company’s presence worldwide was growing rapidly, and year after year, Coca-Cola found a home in more and more places: Cambodia, Montserrat, Paraguay, Macau, Turkey and more.
The 1990s were a time of continued growth for The Coca-Cola Company. The Company’s long association with sports was strengthened during this decade, with ongoing support of the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup football (soccer), Rugby World Cup and the National Basketball Association. Coca-Cola classic became the Official Soft Drink of NASCAR racing, connecting the brand with one of the world’s fastest growing and most popular spectator sports.

Spatial Organisation
It has 139,600 associates around the world, with 50 percent of them outside the U.S.
The Coca-Cola Europe Group employs approximately 1,600 Company associates who work with European bottler employees numbering more than 60,000 strong. Approximately one third of the Company team of 1,600 provides shared services for all of the Europe Group and beyond and manages group-wide resources, while 12 business units, consisting of one to four countries each, execute plans at the local market level.

Headquarters
The Coca-Cola Headquarters is a campus in Midtown Atlanta, Georgia that is home to The Coca-Cola Company.

Production
1920s & 30s – The Company began a major push to establish bottling operations outside the U.S. Plants were opened in France, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Belgium, Italy, Peru, Spain, Australia and South Africa. By the time World War II began, Coca-Cola was being bottled in 44 countries.
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Company invested heavily to build plants in Eastern Europe. And as the century closed, more than $1.5 billion was committed to new bottling facilities in Africa.
Coca Cola don’t always own their factories; they subcontract out to pre-existing bottling companies to save more money.
Coca Cola want to have access to high earning large populations such as India, by manufacturing their goods close to their intended market they can save on transportation costs.
Coca Cola manufactures their drink concentrate in America. The marketing of its products is also completed in America.
Bottlers buy the concentrate from the Coca Cola Company. They then mix it with water and sweeteners then they bottle the finished product. Each bottling company has exclusive rights to a region of the world. Coca Cola owns shares in some of the companies but not all of them, some are independent. Bottlers are in charge of distributing the products to the retailers.
Retailers sell the bottled products to the public to buy.

Research & Development
“Research and Innovation uses sensory science, product development and consumer insights to create totally new beverages and to improve existing ones. We work with our other R&I centres around the world as well as suppliers, agencies and outside research institutes to create the best beverages in the world.”-Coca Cola

R&D still takes place in the US, there has however been recent expansion:
“According to a Coca-Cola official, the company, which has been attempting to increase their efforts in Turkey, is now finalising the details in order to bring the R&D centre project into fruition. Michael O’Neill, CEO of Coca-Cola Soft Drinks, stated, “The issue of tax incentives is definitely a significant factor in the decision to make Turkey a R&D centre.”

Coca-Cola opened a new 90 million USD new research and development centre in Shanghai in March 2009

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Social Influences for Countries Affected
Positive
Coca Cola offer training and education.
Coca Cola runs some community schemes in Africa and South East Asia.
One of Coke’s micro-finance startup schemes provide 4000 Vietnamese women with the merchandise, training and basic equipment to begin selling Coca Cola.

Negative
Environmental regulations are often less strict in LEDC’s: some TNC’s take advantage of this.
Working conditions in some factories are harsh. Employees get very few benefits and there are unlikely to be any unions.
Depletion of the local ground water table due to the utilisation of natural water resources by the company poses a serious threat to many communities. In March 2004, local officials in Kerala, India shut down a $16 million Coke bottling plant blamed for a drastic decline in both quantity and quality of water available to local farmers and villagers.
On February 25, 2010, a new lawsuit was launched on behalf of 8 plaintiffs against The Coca-Cola Co. and Coke processing and bottling plants in Guatemala, with charges of murder, rape, and torture of union leaders and their families.
In Colombia there are allegations that the company “hired, contracted with or otherwise directed paramilitary security forces”. In January 2004, a New York City-based group, that included some city officials, confirmed the workers’ allegations. They found:

“To date, there have been a total of 179 major human rights violations of Coca-Cola’s workers, including 9 murders. Family members o f union activists have been abducted and tortured. Union members have been fired for attending union meetings. The company has pressured workers to resign their union membership and contractual rights, and fired workers who refused to do so.

Most troubling to the delegation were the persistent allegations that paramilitary violence against workers was done with the knowledge of and likely under the direction of company managers. The physical access that paramilitaries have had to Coca-Cola bottling plants is impossible without company knowledge and/or tacit approval….”

Economic Influences for Countries Affected
Positive
Creates jobs both directly and indirectly in the host country.
Many of the bottling firms are local companies so all the profit stays in the host country.
Coca Cola has invested $1.5 billion in the Russian Economy; this includes training, the construction of manufacturing plants and improvements to infrastructure.

Negative
In some LICs they work long hours for very little pay.
Profits are returned to the shareholders, very little of the money remains in the host countries.
TNCs are very powerful; if they are not happy with the economic conditions within the host country they will pull out leaving people unemployed.

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Three litres of water are used to make one litre of Coca-Cola. In order to satisfy this need for vast amount of water, Coca-Cola is increasingly taking over control of aquifers in communities around the world. These vast subterranean chambers hold water resources collected over many hundreds of years. As such they the represent the heritage of entire communities, Coca-Cola is squandering it resulting in shortages of water in communities around the world.

The growth of global tourism

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Roughly around 900 million people become international tourists each year. People have been taking foreign holidays for centuries however it use to only be for the wealthy and they use to travel for extended periods of time. Today holidays are cheaper and we need only go for a week or two.

What has caused this change:
We have more annual paid leave – a combination of more leisure time and paid holidays.
We have a greater disposable income – money to be spent on luxuries.
Development in transport has revolutionised travel – faster and bigger plains
Mass media like TVs and the internet have made people more aware of far flung destinations.
More countries realise the benefits tourism brings and are therefore opening their borders.
Tourism has become a commodity like a car and thus can be sold in the same way. – the package holiday.

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The impact of mass tourism

Mass tourism is a form of tourism that involves tens of thousands of people going to the same resort often at the same time of year. It is the most popular form of tourism as it is often the cheapest way to holiday, and is often sold as a PACKAGE DEAL. A package deal is one in which all of the tourists needs are catered for by one company (such as Thomas Cook), these needs include travel/flights, activities, accommodation and sometimes food. These types of holiday are often the opposite to sustainable tourism. There are many types of mass tourism, including skiing in the mountains, sunbathing on a beach, visiting a theme park (e.g. Euro Disney near Paris) or taking a cruise. Governments and local people often support mass tourism because it generates a lot of income for local areas.

Advantages
1) Jobs are generated by tourism in many areas – in the initial construction of the resorts, in travel, in food provision and in other service related industries.
2) Local people benefit directly from employment
3) Roads, rail, facilities, electricity services etc. all need improving to accommodate the tourists – local people also benefit from these INFRASTRUCTURE developments.
4) Transport facilities are developed
5) The local tax base increases so the local government/council can invest in schools, healthcare and social services.
6) Tourists introduce new values and cultures and learn about new cultures- this causes cultural understanding

Disadvantages
1) TNCs (Trans National Corporations) from rich countries are often involved – this can result in a lot of profits leaving the country.
2 Jobs can be seasonal – especially in beach and skiing based resorts. People can therefore find themselves out of work in the close season.
3) Tourists consume huge amounts of resources including food and water – this type of tourism is particularly UNSUSTAINABLE in this manner.
4) Tourists introduce new values and cultures – this causes cultural pollution.
5) Land is lost from farming to tourist developments.

Case study – Jamaica

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Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea within the Tropics. It is located close to other major islands such as Cuba and is a great example of mass tourism occurring in a Tropical area.
Jamaica has mass tourism because many people visit every year (1.9 million stopover tourists in 2011) People visit for the beaches such as Montego Bay, deep sea fishing at Port Antonio, caves at Cockpit County, golf courses such as next to Kingston Town and water sports in Montego Bay. More cultural activities include various historic plantation houses such as at Port Maria and there are environmental tourist attractions such as bird sanctuaries inland from Montego Bay and Botanic Gardens and a National Park in the Blue Mountains.

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Positive
Tourism brings in money to Jamaica – 20% of its GDP – this money can be spent on essential services such as health care and education which can boost the overall level of development. This does have a downside however, as Jamaica is dependent upon this income and if tourist numbers fall the economy would be affected.

220,000 Jamaicans work in tourism – it is a vital employer. People work in a wide range of jobs, from the construction of hotels and tourist facilities, to service work cleaning, working in bars, caddying on golf courses amongst other jobs.

Tourism benefits many sections of the economy as people spend money in bars, restaurants, and other local businesses, so tourism has a positive multiplier effect.

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Negative
Many of the jobs created are seasonal, so people can become unemployed

Large TNCs (Trans National Companies) such as Thomas Cook organise the holidays and make most of the money, so the profits go out of Jamaica and into MEDCs

Local employees are paid low wages, whereas managers from other countries tend to earn more.

There is cultural pollution/dilution; Jamaica has a problem with sex tourism and a problem with drugs.

Land for the massive hotels takes away land from famers. Water use also increases for drinking water, washing and recreation, taking water from local people.

Local people cannot afford the facilities put in place for the tourists.

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Making tourism more sustainable

The economic benefits from tourism have been great however there are many disadvantages that have come along with this prosperity. This has brought about an approach which must be more sustainable so that negative impacts can be minimised. One of the strategies that have been adopted is Eco-tourism.

The main features of eco-tourism are:
It’s based on locations sen to be special – scenery, wildlife, remoteness and culture.
It aims to educate people and increase understanding of nature and culture.
Tries to minimise consumption of non-renewable resources and environmental damage.
It is locally orientated thereby being controlled by local people and using their produce.
Profits go towards the locals
Conservation of biodiversity and culture are important which is what sustainability aims to do.

imageThis is certainly a greener method rather than mass tourism.

Sustainable tourism: Tourist activities that are socially, environmentally and economically sustainable.
Ecotourism: Holidays that involve eco-related activities and are sustainable e.g. hiking, bird-watching, horse riding, etc.
Ecological Footprint: This is a measure of your demand on the earth’s resources.

Case study – The Galapagos Islands – Ecotourism

The Galapagos Islands are a small chain of islands found 1,000km from the West coast of South America. They are Ecuadorian, and are home to an incredible array of animals and plants.

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The Galapagos Islands are most famous because many of the plants and animals found there are not found anywhere else in the world. This is because the islands are isolated or cut off from the rest of the World’s land mass by the Pacific Ocean, allowing the plants and animals to EVOLVE in their own way for hundreds of thousands of years. This was noted by Charles Darwin, and spurred him on to form his famous theory of evolution. Approximately 90% of the Islands are designated as National parks and there are only 20,000 permanent human residents (although this has risen from 9,000 only 20 years ago), allowing for a high degree of protection of the environment. The area became the first UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979 and they are also a biosphere reserve.

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The Galapagos Islands represent a place in the world were ECOTOURISM takes place. This is environmentally friendly tourism where the people involved seek to protect the environment as much as possible and to allow for some level of education as well. In many cases of ecotourism, some of the profits go back into protecting the environment and the tourism is small scale, with low visitor number densities and environmental approaches to accommodation and food. For example, I have stayed in an ecotourism lodge in Puerto Maldonado in Peru, where tours of the Amazon forest take place for tourists staying in small wooden huts there is limited electricity and waste is dealt with on site, and the food at the resort is sourced locally.

Tourists visit under strict rules:

They can only visit on small ships of 10 to 16 tourists, most of which are owned by local people
The tourists can only visit a limited number of places on the Islands, thus protecting the rest of the Islands
The tourists are only allowed to visit in small numbers.
Visitors also receive information on how to conserve the Islands prior to their departure to the Islands.
They also have to pay a £25 fee to promote conservation on the Islands

Despite all of this, there are still some problems from the overuse of some sites (honey pot sites), oil spills from boats, and pollution to the Islands water supply and the water supply is put under pressure from the tourists use.

However, local people make a valuable living from tourism and there are few other employment opportunities available. Tourists also generate a lot of businesses in the local economy as guides, restaurants, hotels, boats owners and cleaners all benefit.

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Migration and population change

Migration

From 1750 to the present day the world’s population has been constantly increasing. In 1750 the population was less than 1 billion. The population rose very slowly for the next two hundred years reaching 1.2 billion in 1850 and 2.7 billion in 1950. From 1950 to 2012 the population started to rise at a faster rate. By 1975 it reached about 4 billion and 2000 about 6 billion. In the last decade the population has increased at an even faster rate reaching 7 billion by 2012.

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Population growth takes place when birth rates are higher than death rates (natural increase). In most continents of the world this is what is happening. The fastest rates of growth are actually happening in the poorest continents like Africa, Asia and South America. However, in Europe death rates are actually higher than birth rates so natural decrease is taking place.

Below is a table listing some of the reasons why birth rates are high in poorer countries (LICs), but death rates are decreasing and also why birth rates are low in richer countries (HICs).

Natural increase: When birth rates are higher than death rates.
Natural decrease: Where death rates are higher than birth rates.
Fertility rate: The average number of children a female is expected to have in their lifetime.
Birth rates: The number of births per 1000 of population per year.
Death rates: The number of deaths per 1000 of population per year.
Infant mortality: The number of deaths before the age of 1, per 1000 live births per year.
Life expectancy: The average age that someone is expected to live within a country. Generally women tend to live a few years longer than men.

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Demographic Transition Model (DTM)

The DTM looks at how a country’s population may change as it develops. It looks at birth rates, death rates and total population. The DTM is usually divided into five stages. Stage 1 is the poorest stage and stage 5 is the richest stage.

Stage 1: Has birth and death rates. Because birth rates and death rates are both high (no contraception, agricultural based economy, poor medical care, etc.), total population remains low.
Stage 2: Birth rates remain high, but death rates begin to fall. This causes total population to increase (natural increase). Death rates fall because of introduction of basic medical care.
Stage 3: Birth rates begin to fall, but still remain higher than death rates so total population continues to increase. Birth rates begin to fall because of better education and availability of contraception.
Stage 4: Birth rates and death rates are both low so the total population becomes constant (stays the same).
Stage 5: Birth rates start to fall below death rates so the total population actually starts to decline (natural decrease). This is because of delayed marriages, cost of children and emancipation of women.

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Migration

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Migration is the movement of population from one area to another. Some migrations are forced, voluntary, permanent and temporary, International and regional. Forced migration is where people have no option but to move. This can happen during a war (e.g. in Rwanda or Afghanistan) or a natural disaster (such as the 2010 earthquake in Haiti). Voluntary migration occurs when people CHOOSE to move, this is often for economic reasons for work or for social reasons such as to be closer to family. If migration takes place WITHIN a country it is said to be National or regional. If the migrant or migrants cross borders it is said to be International migration.

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Migration can be looked at in terms of time scale as well. Some migrants move for temporary periods whilst others move permanently. Most migrations are local, but all migrations result from a huge range of push and pull factors. A push factor is any event or factor that makes somebody move from a place. A pull factor is a feature that makes some body want to migrate to a place. The place here a migrant ends up is known as the destination or host country, whilst the place losing the migrant is known as the country of origin.

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The Lee’s Model show that as well as there being push factors from where you live there are also pull factors that keep you there (represented by + in model). It also says that as well as pull factors that attract you to a new location, there are also push factors not making you want to move there (represented by – in the diagram).

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Central America (including Mexico) to US Migration

The US and Mexico share a land border of roughly 2000km. Because of a series of push and pull factors, migrants from Mexico and Central America (El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala) try and make the journey across the border. It is estimated that over 1 million migrants each year attempt to cross. Many make it, but others are also caught, in 1995 about 850,000 were caught and deported.

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Impact on the USA (positive and negative)
Illegal migration costs the USA millions of dollars for border patrols and prisons
Mexicans are seen as a drain on the USA economy
Migrant workers keep wages low which affects Americans
They cause problems in cities due cultural and racial issues
Mexican migrants benefit the US economy by working for low wages
Mexican culture has enriched the US border states with food, language and music
The incidents of TB has been increasing greatly due to the increased migration.

Impacts on Mexico (positive and negative)
The Mexican countryside has a shortage of economically active people
Many men emigrate leaving a majority of women who have trouble finding marriage partners
Young people tend to migrate leaving the old and the very young
Legal and illegal immigrants together send some $6 billion a year back to Mexico
Certain villages such as Santa Ines have lost 2/3 of its inhabitants.

 

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Syrian refugees – forced migration – persecution
Refugees of the Syrian Civil War, widely referred as the Syrian refugees are Syrian nationals, who have fled Syria with the escalation of the Syrian Civil War.To escape the violence, more than 2 million Syrian refugees have fled the country to neighbouring Jordan, Lebanon, Turkey, Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan, while thousands also ended up in more distant countries of the Caucasus, the Persian Gulf and North Africa. In August 2012, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that the number of registered Syrian refugees had reached over 200,000, exceeding the UNHCR estimate of 185,000 for the entire year. Also according to the United Nations, 6 million people inside Syrian needed help and about 4 million Syrians were internally displaced because of the Syrian Civil War.

 

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Refugees and IDPs

Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their home and their country. This might be because of a natural disaster, war, religious or political persecution.

Persecution: When someone is attacked for what they believe in e.g. their religion or political belief.
Internally displaced person (IDP): When someone has been forced to leave their home but not their country.
Asylum Seekers: Someone who is trying to get refuge (residency) in a foreign country because their life is in danger in their home country. This is usually because of their political or religious beliefs.

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