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Retailing and other services


 Retailing and other services

Reatil 1000px-Bluewater_Shopping_Centre,_Kent,_England_Crop_-_April_2009


Retailing and other services
The decentralisation of retailing and other services – causes and impacts.
One case study of an out of town centre retailing area.
The redevelopment of urban centres – impacts and responses, including one case study of an urban centre that has undergone redevelopment.

What you need to know:

Out of town centre retailing: E.g. The Trafford Centre, Manchester

Trafford centre - Manchester

Trafford centre – Manchester

When the Trafford Centre was opened in 1998 many people were concerned about the effect it would have on Manchester’s CBD. Nearly 5.5 million people (almost 10% of the UK population) live within 45 minutes’ drive of the centre. People travel from Liverpool in the west, Leeds to the east, Stoke-on-Trent in the south and as far as Preston to the north. In 2005, 29.4 million people visited the centre. It was designed to be more than just a shopping centre, with a 1,600-seat food court, an 18-lane ten-pin bowling alley, a LaserQuest arena and a 20-screen cinema. Since its opening various additions have been made, and a further expansion, called Barton Square, aimed at more household items (furniture, bathroom and kitchen fittings etc) was completed in 2006.

The Trafford Centre offers the following:
• very good motorway links: being close to Junctions 9 and 10 of the M60, with easy links to the M6, M61, M62 and the M602 to Manchester city centre.
• 11,000 free car parking spaces, broken up into discrete segments each of which has its own automatic capacity monitoring system which can relay messages to the advice-signing on the on-site roads and on public roads approaching the centre from the motorway network
• a bus station with the capacity to deal with 120 buses per hour
• facilities for the disabled which are regularly spaced within the complex. These include a Shop Mobility Unit offering scooters and wheelchairs
• a weatherproof, air-conditioned and safe environment
• its own security system, with a tannoy and a meeting point for lost children
• a full range of peripheral services, such as a post office, banks and travel agents.

Advantages of Trafford Centre
The Trafford Centre offers:
11,000 car parking spaces; wide range of facilities for disabled shoppers -including a Shop Mobility Unit; enclosed safe environment; bespoke security unit with child care and lost child facilities; wide range of peripheral retail services including banks, cash points, post office and travel agents.

Disadvantages of Trafford Centre
The Trafford Centre has disadvantages which are common to many large out of town retail centres: Peak flow congestion on M60 and other access roads (Bank Holidays and Christmas period); artificial atmosphere with themed shopping experiences drawn from Italy, Chinatown and New Orleans; no independent retail traders due to high rental costs and centre management fees; difficult for poorer people to access because of security screening by management staff prevent homeless people entering centre; public transport only recently improved with Metrolink connection

The redevelopment of urban centres.

The problems / issues that urban centres are facing (watch the YouTube clip below)

Urban planners are extremely concerned that the commercial hearts of towns are declining, as there are potentially large problems for run-down city centres which can become very dangerous at night. Dereliction, increased numbers of low grade shops and lack of investment all encourage “blight” to set in.

Planners see the CBD as an important social and cultural meeting point for a city. A declining CBD will only accelerate the success of the out-of-town centres. A number of strategies are being devised to help the city centre “fight back”:
• The provision of a more attractive shopping environment with pedestrianisation, new street furniture, floral displays, paving and landscaping
• The construction of all-weather shopping malls that are air conditioned in the summer and heated in the winter, often with integral low cost parking
• The encouragement of specialist areas, such as open street markets, cultural quarters and arcades
• The improvement of public transport links to the heart of the CBD, with rapid transit systems, park and ride schemes and shopper buses
• The extensive use of CCTV and emergency alarm systems to reduce crime and calm the fears of the public, particularly women
• The organisation of special shopping events such as Christmas fairs, late night shopping and Sunday shopping
• Conservation schemes that enhance the ambience of heritage cities such as Chester, York, Bath and Cambridge.

Many cities are also encouraging functions other than retailing to increase the attractions of a CBD by:
• Developing a wider range of leisure facilities, such as café bars, restaurants, music venues (such as the “Arenas” in many city centres), cinemas and theatres that people would visit in the evening
• Promoting street activity as is often the case at Covent Garden in London
• Developing a wide range of nightlife, such as “clubbing” in Manchester and Leeds (but there are negatives associated with this with the high level of policing that will be necessary)
• Establishing theme areas, such as the gay area in Manchester, or the cultural quarters of Sheffield and Stoke
• Developing flagship attractions (for example the photographic museum in Bradford)
• Encouraging residential activities to return to city centres, either in the form of gentrification or new up-market apartments.

Hackney – Cool Hackney

Why is Brighton so obsessed with coffee? Read the Guardian article below

Liverpool ONE

Liverpool ONE

Liverpool ONE is a shopping, residential and leisure complex in Liverpool, England, United Kingdom.

The project, involved the redevelopment of 170,000 m² of underutilised land in Liverpool city centre. It is a retail led development, anchored by department stores Debenhams and John Lewis, with additional elements including leisure facilities (anchored by a 14-screen Odeon cinema and 36-hole adventure golf centre), apartments, offices, public open space and transport improvements. The completion of Liverpool ONE has significantly boosted the local economy as well as lifted Liverpool into the top five most popular retail destinations in the UK. Liverpool ONE is the largest open air shopping centre in the United Kingdom and the 10th largest overall.

The majority of the development was opened in phases on 29 May 2008 and 1 October 2008, during Liverpool’s year as European Capital of Culture, whilst the final residential units opened in early 2009. The cost of construction associated with the project was £500 million, with a total investment value of £920 million.

Positive and negative aspects of each:

Edge of town positive

They are designed around easy access and parking so are consumer friendly.

They can improve the profile and status of a region of a town.

They are often covered and car free

They can provide a much needed stimulus for local and CBD retailing areas to improve

They provide a greater shopping choice, and often low prices because of economies of bulk purchasing

Increased passing-trade for some retailers

Increased employment for people who initially construct and then work in out of town shopping centres

There is room for expansion Land prices are cheaper

City centre positive

They are very well connected via public transport links such as buses and trains.

They are architecturally rich areas with many historical elements, therefore offer an interesting retailing experience

Retailing areas sit alongside commerce, leisure and food outlets/uses, so consumers can profit from this.

They can have pedestrianised areas free of traffic.

Shop units are unique in shape and form

Edge of town negative –

They increase the reliance on car, leading to greater

pollution, increased resource use, congestion and

stress. This also disadvantages less mobile sections of the community who do not have access to this type of transport and therefore miss out on savings

When retail concentrates into few stores, a monopoly of sorts develops in which shopping choice may be restricted. In the long run, these monopolies can control prices too.

Decentralisation leads to decline of traditional town centres

Employment opportunities are mostly for females, and for part-time work. They offer a sterile and boring shopping experience, that lacks the character and architectural riches of city centre shopping

City centre negative –

Shop units are restricted by building size and shape and do not suit large scale retailing.

CBDs are not built for the motorcar, and therefore traffic jams can result increasing pollution levels in those areas.

Many CBDs are not covered against the weather.

Many CBDs are not pedestrianised and are therefore more dangerous.

CBDs can have higher crime rates for retailers

There is limited space for expansion

Land prices are more expensive

Hackney WIck,di fronte al villaggio olimpico


15. Discuss the impacts that out-of-town centre retailing has on urban areas. (10 marks)

16. Assess the impact of retailing areas in out-of-town centre locations on the regions in which they occur. (40 marks)

17. Using an example you have studied, outline the characteristics of one out-of-town centre retailing area. (8 marks)

18. With reference to one or more example(s), evaluate the success urban centre redevelopment in response to recent trends in retailing. (10 marks)

retail boxparklondon_01

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