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Shaping places – regeneration

regeneration

Changing Places

Enquiry question 1: How and why do places vary? An in-depth study of the local place in which you live or study and one contrasting place.

1.1 Economies can be classified in different ways and vary from place to place.

  • Economic activity can be classified by sector (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and also by type of employment (part-time/full-time, temporary/permanent, employed/self-employed.
  • There are differences in economic activity (employment data and output data) and this is reflected through variation in social factors (health, life expectancy and levels of education).
  • The inequalities in pay levels across economic sectors and in different types of employment are reflected in quality of life indices.

1.2 Places have changed their function and characteristics over time.

  • Over time, places have changed their functions (administrative, commercial, retail and industrial) and demographic characteristics (gentrification, age structure and ethnic composition).
  • Reason for changes in a place might be explained by physical factors, accessibility and connectedness, historical development and the role of local and national planning.
  • Change can be measured using employment trends, demographic changes, land use changes and levels of deprivation (income deprivation, employment deprivation, health deprivation, crime, quality of the living environment, abandoned and derelict land).

1.3 Past and present connections have shaped the economic and social characteristics of your chosen places.

  • Regional and national influences have shaped the characteristics of your chosen places. These places can be represented in a variety of different forms, giving contrasting images to that presented more formally and statistically. How the lives of students and those of others are affected by this continuity and change, both real and imagined.
  • International and global influences that have shaped your chosen places. These places can be represented in a variety of different forms, giving contrasting images to that presented more formally and statistically. How the lives of students and those of others are affected by this continuity and change, both real and imagined. (P: increasing roles of TNCs and IGOs)
  • Consideration of the way in which economic and social changes in your chosen places have influenced people’s identity. (A: Attitudes on changes range from cultural erosion to enrichment)

Enquiry question 2: Why might regeneration be needed?

2.1 Economic and social inequalities changes people’s perceptions of an area.

  • Successful regions (San Francisco Bay area) have high rates of employment, inward migration (internal and international) and low levels of multiple deprivation but also high property prices and skill shortages in both urban and rural areas.
  • In some regions (The Rust Belt, USA) economic restructuring has triggered a spiral of decline, which includes increasing levels of social deprivation (education, health, crime, access to services and living environment) in both deindustrialised urban areas and rural settlements once dominated by primary economic activities.
  • There are priorities for regeneration due to significant variations in both economic and social inequalities (gated communities, ‘sink estates’, commuter villages, declining rural settlements).

2.2 There are significant variations in the lived experience of place and engagement with them.

  • There are wide variations in levels of engagement in local communities (local and national election turnout, development and support for local community groups). (A: local communities vary in attitudes).
  • Lived experience of, and attachment to, places varies according to age, ethnicity, gender, length of residence (new migrants, students) and levels of deprivation; these in turn impact on levels of engagement. (A: Attachment to places influence attitudes).
  • Conflicts can occur among contrasting groups in communities that have different views about the priorities and strategies for regeneration, these have complex causes (lack of political engagement and representation, ethnic tensions, inequality and lack of economic opportunity). (P: Players vary attitudes(A) and may have contrasting approaches.

2.3 There is a range of ways to evaluate the need for regeneration.

  • The use of statistical evidence to determine the need for regeneration in your chosen local place.
  • Different media can provide contrasting evidence, questioning the need for regeneration in your chosen local place.
  • How different representations of your chosen local place could influence the perceived need for regeneration.

Enquiry question 3: How is regeneration managed?

3.1 UK government policy decisions play a key role in regeneration.

  • Infrastructure investment (high speed rail, airport development) in order to maintain growth and improve accessibility to regenerate regions. (P: national government facilitate regeneration often in partnerships with charities and developers).
  • Rate and type of development (planning laws, house building targets, housing affordability, permission for ‘fracking’) affecting economic regeneration of both rural and urban regions. (A: Government actions may prioritise national over local needs and opinions.).
  • UK government decisions about international migration and the deregulation of capital markets ( enabling foreign investment in prime London real estate) have significant impacts on the potential for growth and both direct and indirect investment. (P: Government may create open or closed doors policies).

3.2 Local government policies aim to represent areas as being attractive for inward investment.

  • Local governments compete to create sympathetic business environments with local plans designating areas for development for a range of domestic and foreign investors (Science Parks). (A: the actions of local authorities will affect their success)
  • Local interest groups (Chambers of Commerce, local preservation societies, trade unions) play a key role in decision-making about regeneration; there are often tensions between groups that wish to preserve urban environments and those that seek change. (London Olympics 2012) (A: differing attitudes may cause conflicts).
  • Urban and rural regeneration strategies include retail-led plans, tourism, leisure and sport (London Olympics 2012), public/private rural diversification (Powys Regeneration Partnership).

3.3 Rebranding attempts to represent areas as being more attractive by changing public perception of them.

  • Rebranding involves re-imaging places using a variety of media to improve the image of both urban and rural locations and make them more attractive for potential investors.
  • For UK deindustrialised cities, rebranding can stress the attraction of places, creating specific place identity building on their industrial heritage; this can attract national and international tourists and visitors (Glasgow ‘Scotland with Style’).
  • There are a range of rural rebranding strategies in the postproduction countryside based on heritage and literary associations, farm diversification and specialised products, outdoor pursuits and adventure in both accessible and remote areas; these strategies are intended to make these places more attractive to national and international tourists and visitors (‘Brontë country, Kielder Forest).

Enquiry question 4: How successful is regeneration?

4.1 The success of regeneration uses a range of measures: economic, demographic, social and environmental.

  • The success of economic regeneration can be assessed using measures of income, poverty and employment (both relative and absolute changes) both within areas and by comparison to other more successful areas.
  • Social progress can be measured by reductions in inequalities both between areas and within them; social progress can also be measured by improvements in social measures of deprivation and in demographic changes (improvements in life expectancy and reductions in health deprivation).
  • Regeneration is successful if it leads to an improvement in the living environment (levels of pollution reduced, reduction in abandoned and derelict land).

4.2 Different urban stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of urban regeneration

  • A study of the strategies used in the regeneration of an urban place (Salford Quays) and the contested nature of these decisions within local communities. (A: Attitudes will include NIMBYism)
  • b. The changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in an urban area. (F: future success depends on past decisions).
  • Different stakeholders (local and national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess success using contrasting criteria; their views will depend on the meaning and lived experiences of an urban place and the impact of change on both the reality and the image of that place.

4.3 Different rural stakeholders have different criteria for judging the success of rural regeneration.

  • A study of the strategies used in the restructuring of a rural place (North Antrim coast) and the contested nature of these decisions within local communities.
  • The changes that have taken place as a consequence of national and local strategies can be judged using a range of economic, social, demographic and environmental variables in a rural area. (F: future success depends on past decisions).
  • Different stakeholders (local and national governments, local businesses and residents) will assess success using contrasting criteria; their views will depend on the meaning and lived experiences of a rural place and the impact of change on both the reality and the image of that place.

 

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